OSI Reference model

In this topic, you will learn about, OSI Reference model.

OSI model was proposed by an international standard organization. It is also known as the ISO-OSI model(Open system interconnection).

It specifies communication rule and its divided into 7 layers:

  1. Physical layer: It processes raw data in the form of 0 and 1.Any network device first interacts with this layer. It is the most powerful communication layer that uses a subnet mask for transmission. It transmits data to the Data link layer.
  2. Datalink layer: It receives data from the physical layer and verifies the communication link. It is also called a sub-layer or medium control layer. It receives a packet from the physical layer and transmits it to the network layer.
  3. Network layer: It receives a signal from the data link layer and passes it to the destination. It uses router components through which we can pass packets of data. It specifies a mask for each packet where the subnet mask represents protocol.
  4. Transport Layer: It divides our packets into small pieces and transfers them to the Session layer. It uses Pc as components.
  5. Session Layer: It also uses Pc as components and its other facility to establish, manage, and terminate communication host. It also specifies data in binary form i.e 0 and 1 and it receives tokens.
  6. Presentation Layer: It provides a protocol for users like SMTP, FTP, TCP/IP, etc.
  7. Application Layer: It specifies the top layer for network components. It also uses Pc components works through which we can access PC resources like printer, monitor, speaker, etc.
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The principal of the OSI reference model:

  1. In this model, each layer specifies a set of rules and protocols for data traversal.
  2. OSI reference model generally used to specify rules for each layer.
  3. OSI reference model sequence should be maintained.
  4. It can be useful for guided and unguided transmission.

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