Functional Units of a digital computer

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In this topic, you will learn about, Functional Units of a digital computer (or) Basic components of a computer.

The five major functional units of a digital computer are:

  1. Central Processing Unit.
  2. PDU, Keyboard, and mouse.
  3. Other Input and Output device.
  4. Computer memory.

Central Processing Unit: The CPU is the brain of the computer. Its primary job to run the program and control the operation of all other components such as memory, keyboard, and printer. The basic operations mainly inputting, processing, storing outputting, and controlling data, carried out by all computer systems.

The major sections of CPU are:

  1. Primary Memory.
  2. Arithmetic and logical unit.
  3. Control unit.

Primary Memory: A primary or the main memory unit is one of the major parts of a computer. It holds data that is currently manipulated by the CPU.

ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit): The ALU of the computer system is the place where the actual execution of the instructions takes place. All calculations are performed and all comparison is made in the ALU.

Control Unit: This unit is responsible for controlling the entire working of the computer. The timing and the control signal are generated by this unit and sent to the other unit for execution of the program for proper control it also controls the transfer of data between memory and output devices.

major sections of CPU
                                                                   fig: major sections of CPU

PDU, keyboard, and Mouse: Input-output devices are those devices that are used to enter information into a computer or display results of data processing devices. The devices are:

  1. PDU
  2. Keyboard and mouse.
  3. Other Input devices.

Input devices are those devices that are used to enter information into a computer or other data processing devices. These devices are:

  1. Joysticks.
  2. Light pen.
  3. Scanner.
  4. Optical mark reader.
  5. Optical character reader.

Other Output devices: Output devices are those devices of a computer system that supplies information or result either in the form of hardcopy or softcopy. Some common output devices are:

  1. Printer.
  2. Plotter.
  3. Multimedia projectors.

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